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Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the key stakeholders’ perceptions of the village doctors’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antibiotic prescribing for children with URTIs, and to identify the factors associated with unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.

The key stakeholders included village doctors, primary caregivers, directors from the local county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Health Bureaus or China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) offices, and township hospital staff who work in the field of drug administration and/or have direct contact with village doctors.

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About 85% to 90% of antibiotics are prescribed by primary care physicians, and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) such as pharyngitis, otitis media, common cold, rhinosinusitis, and bronchitis are the main reasons for antibiotic prescriptions.

Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China.

Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach.

The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision.

Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics.

Jiayu's GDP ranks second, with a population of 0.37 million, and 186 village doctors.

Chongyang's GDP ranks fifth, with a population of 0.49 million, and 547 village doctors.

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